Scientific Publications

On this page, you will find references and links to two categories of peer-reviewed articles.

  • Peer-reviewed articles on ESSL’s scientific results
  • Selected articles produced by (current or past) ESSL researchers with relevance to ESSL’s activities

The names of ESSL employed authors are underlined.

Peer-reviewed ESSL publications

In reverse chronological order:


Púčik, Tomás, David Rýva, Miloslav Staněk, Miroslav Šinger, Pieter Groenemeijer, Georg Pistotnik, Rainer Kaltenberger, Miloš Zich, Jan Koláček, and Alois Holzer, 2024: The violent tornado on 24 June 2021 in Czechia: damage survey, societal impacts and lessons learned. Wea. Climate Soc.,, in press.

Homa Ghasemifard, Pieter GroenemeijerTomáš Púčik and Francesco Battaglioli, 2024: Do changing circulation types raise the frequency of summertime thunderstorms and large hail in Europe? Accepted in Env. Research Climate.


Battaglioli, F., P. Groenemeijer, T. Púčik, M. Taszarek, U. Ulbrich, and H. Rust, 2023: Modelled multidecadal trends of lightning and (very) large hail in Europe and North America (1950–2021). J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 62, 1627–1653,

Battaglioli, F., Groenemeijer, P., Tsonevsky, I., and Púčik, T., 2023: Forecasting Large Hail and Lightning using Additive Logistic Regression Models and the ECMWF Reforecasts, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci.,

Pilorz, W., Laskowski, I., Surowiecki, A., & Łupikasza, E., 2023.
Fatalities related to sudden meteorological events across Central Europe from 2010 to 2020. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 88, 103622,

González-Alemán, J. J., Insua-Costa, D., Bazile, E., González-Herrero, S., Marcello Miglietta, M., Groenemeijer, P., & Donat, M. G., 2023: Anthropogenic Warming Had a Crucial Role in Triggering the Historic and Destructive Mediterranean Derecho in Summer 2022. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 104(8), E1526-E1532.


Nimac, I., Cindrić Kalin, K., Renko, T., Vujnović, T., and Horvath, K., 2022:
The analysis of summer 2020 urban flood in Zagreb (Croatia) from hydro-meteorological point of view. Nat Hazards 112, 873–897.

Ganachaud, A., Karina von Schuckmann, Andra Whiteside, Cecile Dupouy, Pierre-Yves Le Meur, Maeva Monier, Simon van Wynsberge et al., 2022:
Copernicus Ocean state report, issue 6, Journal of Operational Oceanography 15, no. 1 (2022): 1-220.
(ESSL co-author: Pieter Groenemeijer)


Taszarek, M., J. T. Allen, P. Groenemeijer, R. Edwards, H. E. Brooks, V. Chmielewski, and S. Enno, Severe convective storms across Europe and the United States. Part 1: Climatology of lightning, large hail, severe wind and tornadoes. J. Climate.

Taszarek, M., J. T. Allen, T. Púčik, K. A. Hoogewind, and H. E. Brooks, Severe convective storms across Europe and the United States. Part 2: ERA5 environments associated with lightning, large hail, severe wind and tornadoes. J. Climate, in press.

Chernokulsky, Alexander, Michael Kurgansky, Igor Mokhov, Andrei Shikhov, Igor Azhigov, Evgeniya Selezneva, Denis Zakharchenko, Bogdan Antonescu, and Thilo Kühne, 2020: Tornadoes in Northern Eurasia: From the Middle Age to the Information Era. Monthly Weather Review, 148, 3081–3110.

Brázdil, Rudolf, Kateřina Chromá, Tomáš Púčik, Zbyněk Černoch,Petr Dobrovolný, Lukáš Dolák, Oldřich Kotyza, Ladislava Řezníčková and Mateusz Taszarek, 2020: The Climatology of Significant Tornadoes in the Czech Republic. Atmosphere, 11, 689.

Antonescu, B., T. Púčik, and D. M.Schultz, 2020. Hindcasting the First Tornado Forecast in Europe: 25 June 1967. Weather and Forecasting, 35, 417–436.


Allen, John, T., Ian M. Giammanco, Matthew R. Kumjian, Heinz Jurgen Punge, Qinghong Zhang, Pieter Groenemeijer, Michael Kunz, Kiel Ortega, 2019; Understanding Hail in the Earth System, accepted in Reviews of Geophysics.

Brooks, H.E., A. Chernokulsky, E. Tochimoto, B. Hanstrum, E. de Lima Nascimento, D.M. Sills, B. Antonescu, and B. Barrett, 2019:
A century of progress in severe convective storm research and forecasting. Meteorological Monographs.

Antonescu, B., D.M. Schultz, H.M. Ricketts, and D. Ene, 2019: Theories on Tornado and Waterspout Formation in Ancient Greece and Rome. Wea. Climate Soc., 11, 889–900.

Tomáš Púčik, Christopher Castellano, Pieter Groenemeijer, Thilo Kühne, Anja T. Rädler, Bogdan Antonescu, and Eberhard Faust, 2019: Large hail incidence and its economic and societal impacts across Europe, Monthly Weather Review147, 3901–3916.

Anja T. Rädler, P.H. Groenemeijer, E. Faust, R. Sausen and T. Púčik, 2019: Frequency of severe thunderstorms across Europe expected to increase in the 21st century due to rising instability, npj Climate and Atmospheric Science, 2, 30.

Mateusz Taszarek, John T. Allen, Tomáš Púčik, Pieter Groenemeijer, Bartosz Czernecki, Leszek Kolendowicz, Kostas Lagouvardos, Vasiliki Kotroni and Wolfgang Schulz, 2019: A climatology of thunderstorms across Europe from a synthesis of multiple data sources. Journal of Climate3218131837. 10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0372.1


Bogdan Antonescu, and F. Cărbunaru, 2018: Lightning-Related Fatalities in Romania from 1999 to 2015.
Weather, Climate, and Society, 10, 241–252.

Bogdan Antonescu, Jonathan G. Fairman Jr., and David M. Schultz, 2018: What’s the Worst That Could Happen? Re-examining the 24–25 June 1967 Tornado Outbreak Over Western Europe
Weather, Climate, and Society, 10, 323340doi:10.1175/WCAS-D-17-0076.1

Anja Rädler, Pieter Groenemeijer, Eberhard Faust and Robert Sausen, 2018:
Detecting severe weather trends using an Additive Regressive Convective Hazard Model (AR-CHaMo)
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 57, 569–587. doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-17-0132.1

Alois M. Holzer, Thomas M. E. Schreiner, and Tomáš Púčik, 2018:
A forensic re-analysis of one of the deadliest European tornadoes
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1555-1565.


Tomáš Púčik, Pieter Groenemeijer, Anja T. Rädler, Lars Tijssen, Grigory Nikulin, Andreas F. Prein, Erik van Meijgaard, Rowan Fealy, Daniela Jacob, and Claas Teichmann, 2017:
Future Changes in European Severe Convection Environments in a Regional Climate Model Ensemble
Journal of Climate, 30,  6771–6794.

Pieter Groenemeijer, Tomáš Púčik, Alois M. Holzer, Bogdan Antonescu, Kathrin Riemann-Campe, David M. Schultz, Thilo Kühne, Bernold Feuerstein, Harold E. Brooks, Charles A. Doswell III, Hans-Joachim Koppert, and Robert Sausen, 2017:
Severe Convective Storms in Europe: 10 Years of Research at the European Severe Storms Laboratory, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 982641–2651.

Bogdan Antonescu, David M. Schultz, Alois M. Holzer, Pieter Groenemeijer, 2017:
Tornadoes in Europe: An underestimated threat
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 98, 713–728.


Wapler, Kathrin, Thomas Hengstebeck and Pieter Groenemeijer, 2016:
Mesocyclones in Central Europe as seen by radar
Atmospheric Research, 168, 112–120.

Antonescu, Bogdan, David M. Schultz, Fiona Lomas and Thilo Kühne, 2016:
Tornadoes in Europe: Synthesis of Observational Datasets.
Monthly Weather Review, 144, 2445–2480, doi: 10.1175/MWR-D-15-0298.1.

Pistotnik, Georg, Pieter Groenemeijer and Robert Sausen, 2016:
Validation of Convective Parameters in MPI-ESM Decadal Hindcasts (1971–2012) against ERA-Interim Reanalyses
Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 25, 753–766, doi: 10.1127/metz/2016/0649.

Westermayer, AnjaPieter GroenemeijerGeorg Pistotnik, Robert Sausen, Eberhard Faust, 2016:
Identification of thunderstorms in reanalysis data,
Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 26, 59–70, doi: 10.1127/metz/2016/0754.


Púčik, Tomáš, Pieter Groenemeijer, David Rýva, and Miroslav Kolář, 2015:
Proximity Soundings of Severe and Non-severe Thunderstorms in Central Europe.
Monthly Weather Review, 143, 4805–4821

M. G. Sanderson, W. H. Hand, P. Groenemeijer, P. M. Boorman, J. D. C. Webb, and L. J. McColl, 2015:
Projected changes in hailstorms during the 21st century over the UK
International journal of Climatology, 35, 15–24.


Groenemeijer, Pieter, and Thilo Kühne, 2014:
A Climatology of Tornadoes in Europe: Results from the European Severe Weather Database. Mon. Wea. Rev., 142, 4775–4790, [PDF].


Keul, Alexander G., and Alois M. Holzer, 2013:
The relevance and legibility of radio/television weather reports to the Austrian public, Atmos. Res., 123, 32–42.


Brooks, H. E., P. T. Marsh, A. M. Kowaleski, P. Groenemeijer, T. E. Thompson, C. S. Schwartz, C. M. Shafer, A. Kolodziej, N. Dahl, and D. Buckey, 2011:
Evaluation of European Storm Forecast Experiment (ESTOFEX) forecasts.
Atmos. Res., 100, 538–546.

Dotzek, N., and C. Forster, 2011:
Quantitative comparison of METEOSAT thunderstorm detection and nowcasting with in situ reports in the European Severe Weather Database (ESWD).
Atmos. Res., 100, 511-522.
[preprint PDF]

Feuerstein, B. and P. Groenemeijer, 2011:
In memoriam Nikolai Dotzek,
Atmos.Res., 100, 306–309.

Feuerstein, B., P. Groenemeijer, E. Dirksen, M. Hubrig, A. M. Holzer, and N. Dotzek:
Towards an improved wind speed scale vs. damage description adapted for Central Europe.
Atmos. Res., 100, 547-564.

Markowski, P. M., and N. Dotzek, 2011:
A numerical study of the effects of orography on supercells.
Atmos. Res., 100, 457-478.
[preprint PDF]

Pistotnik, G., A. M. Holzer, R. Kaltenbock, S. Tschannett, 2011:
An F3 downburst in Austria – A case study with special focus on the importance of real-time site surveys.
Atmos. Res., 100, 565-579.


Beck, V., and N. Dotzek, 2010:
Reconstruction of near-surface tornado wind fields from forest damage.
J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 49, 1517-1537.

Dotzek, N., S. Emeis, C. Lefebvre, and J. Gerpott, 2010:
Waterspouts over the North and Baltic Seas: Observations and climatology, prediction and reporting.
Meteorol. Z., 19, 115-129.
[preprint PDF]

Markowski, P., and N. Dotzek, 2010:
Comments on “Proposed Conceptual Taxonomy for Proper Identification and Classification of Tornado Events”.
Wea. Forecasting, 25, 338-340.
[preprint PDF]


Doswell, C. A. III, H. E. Brooks, and N. Dotzek, 2009:
On the implementation of the Enhanced Fujita scale in the USA.
Atmos. Res., 93, 554-563.
[preprint PDF]

Dotzek, N., 2009:
Derivation of physically motivated wind speed scales.
Atmos. Res., 93, 564-574.
[preprint PDF]

Dotzek, N., and K. Friedrich, 2009:
Downburst-producing thunderstorms in southern Germany: Radar analysis and predictability.
Atmos. Res., 93, 457-473.
[preprint PDF]

Dotzek, N., P. Groenemeijer, B. Feuerstein, and A. M. Holzer, 2009:
Overview of ESSL’s severe convective storms research using the European Severe Weather Database ESWD. Atmos. Res., 93, 575-586.
[preprint PDF]

Kaltenböck, R., G. Diendorfer, and N. Dotzek, 2009:
Evaluation of thunderstorm indices from ECMWF analyses, lightning data and severe storm reports. Atmos. Res., 93, 381-396.
[preprint PDF]


Dotzek, N., R. E. Peterson, B. Feuerstein, and M. Hubrig, 2008:
Comments on “A simple model for simulating tornado damage in forests”
J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol
., 47, 726-731.
[preprint PDF]

Selected “pre-ESSL” publications by ESSL researchers

In reverse chronological order:

Eccel, E., Cau, P., Riemann-Campe, K. and Biasioli, F., 2012:
Quantitative hail monitoring in an alpine area: 35-year climatology and links with atmospheric variables.
Int. J. Climatol., 32: 503–517.

Groenemeijer, P. and Craig, G.C., 2012. Ensemble forecasting with a stochastic convective parametrization based on equilibrium statistics. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12, 4555–4565.

Groenemeijer, P., U. Corsmeier, Ch. Kottmeier, 2011:
The development of tornadic storms on the cold side of a front favoured by local enhancement of moisture and CAPE
Atmos. Res., 100, 765–781.

Riemann-Campe, K., Blender, R. and Fraedrich, K., 2011:|
Global memory analysis in observed and simulated CAPE and CIN.
Int. J. Climatol., 31: 1099–1107.

Groenemeijer, P., and coauthors, 2009:
Observations of kinematics and thermodynamic structure surrounding a convective storm cluster over a low mountain range.
Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 585–602.

Riemann-Campe, K., K. Fraedrich, and F. Lunkeit, 2009:
Global climatology of convective available potential energy (CAPE) and convective inhibition (CIN) in ERA-40 reanalysis.
Atmos. Res., 93, 534-545.

Bissolli, P., J. Grieser, N. Dotzek, and M. Welsch, 2007:
Tornadoes in Germany 1950-2003 and their relation to particular weather conditions.
Global and Planetary Change,
57, 124-138.
[preprint PDF]

Brooks, H. E., A. R. Anderson, K. Riemann, I. Ebbers, and H. Flachs, 2007: Climatological aspects of convective parameters from the NCAR/NCEP reanalysis. Atmos. Res., 83, 294-305.

Dotzek, N., P. Lang, M. Hagen, T. Fehr, and W. Hellmiss, 2007:
Doppler radar observation, CG lightning activity, and aerial survey of a multiple downburst in southern Germany on 23 March 2001.
Atmos Res., 83, 519-533.
[preprint PDF]

Groenemeijer, P., and A. van Delden, 2007:
Sounding-derived parameters in the vicinity of large hail and tornadoes in the Netherlands.
Atmos. Res., 67-68, 273-299.
[preprint PDF]

Dotzek, N., R. M. Rabin, L. D. Carey, D. R. MacGorman, T. L. McCormick, N. W. Demetriades, M. J. Murphy, and R. L. Holle, 2005:
Lightning activity related to satellite and radar observations of a mesoscale convective system over Texas on 7-8 April 2002.
Atmos. Res., 76, 127-166.

Dotzek, N., M. V. Kurgansky, J. Grieser, B. Feuerstein, and P. Névir, 2005:
Observational evidence for exponential tornado intensity distributions over specific kinetic energy.
Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L24813, doi:10.1029/2005GL024583.
[preprint PDF]

Fehr, T., N. Dotzek, and H. Höller, 2005:
Comparison of lightning activity and radar-retrieved microphysical properties in EULINOX storms.
Atmos. Res., 76, 167-189.

Feuerstein, B., N. Dotzek, and J. Grieser, 2005:
Assessing a tornado climatology from global tornado intensity distributions.
J. Climate
, 18, 585-596.
[preprint PDF]

Dotzek, N., 2003:
An updated estimate of tornado occurrence in Europe, 2003:
Atmos. Res.,6768, 153–161.
[preprint PDF]

Dotzek, N., J. Grieser, and H. E. Brooks, 2003:
Statistical modeling of tornado intensity distributions.
Atmos. Res.
, 6768, 163–187.
[preprint PDF]

Dotzek, N., and T. Fehr, 2003:
Relationship between precipitation rates at the ground and aloft – a modeling study.
J. Appl. Meteorol. 42, 1285-1301.

Dotzek, N., 2002:
Severe local storms and the insurance industry.
J. Meteorol.
, 26, 3–12.
[preprint PDF]

Holzer, A. M., 2001:
Tornado climatology of Austria.
Atmos. Res.
, 56, 203-211.
[preprint PDF]

Dotzek, N., 2001:
Tornadoes in Germany.
Atmos. Res.
, 56, 233-251.
[preprint PDF]

Dotzek, N., and K.-D. Beheng, 2001:
The influence of deep convective motions on the variability of Z-R relations.
Atmos. Res., 59-60, 15-39.

Dotzek, N., H. Höller, C. Théry, and T. Fehr, 2001:
Lightning evolution related to radar-derived microphysics in the 21 July 1998 EULINOX supercell storm. Atmos. Res. 56, 335-354.

Hannesen, R., N. Dotzek, J. Handwerker, 2000:
Radar analysis of a tornado over hilly terrain on 23 July 1996.
Phys. Chem. Earth B
, 25, 1079-1084.
[preprint PDF]

Dotzek, N., G. Berz, E. Rauch, R. E. Peterson, 2000:
Die Bedeutung von Johannes P. Letzmanns “Richtlinien zur Erforschung von Tromben, Tornados, Wasserhosen und Kleintromben” für die heutige Tornadoforschung.
Meteor. Z., 9, 165-174.
[preprint PDF]

Dotzek, N., H. Höller, and C. Théry, 2000:
Lightning and microphysics in a EULINOX supercell storm.
Phys. Chem. Earth B, 25, 1285-1288.

Holzer, A. M., 2000:
Die Untersuchung und Dokumentation von zwei Tornados in der südlichen Steiermark im Sommer 1998.
Wetter und Leben, 50, 103-114.

Hannesen, R., N. Dotzek, H. Gysi, K. D. Beheng, 1998:
Case study of a tornado in the Upper Rhine valley.
Meteor. Z., 7, 163-170.
[preprint PDF]