RAIN Project


Since May 2014, ESSL is engaged in the EU-project RAIN. ESSL leads Work Package 2, Hazard Identification.

Within the work package, the following results were obtained

1. Review of past events

A review of past cases of severe weather impacting European Critical Infrastructure was performed. The results have been presented at a workshop in Berlin and in the following project report:

RAIN report D2.2: Past Cases of Extreme Weather Impact on Critical Infrastructure in Europe

2. Assess present warning systems

An assessment was made of the present state of risk monitoring and warning systems in Europe.

RAIN report D2.3: Present state of risk monitoring and warning systems in Europe

ESSL’s Alois Holzer has given an interview to Michael Allen (from YOURIS) with Alois M. Holzer (ESSL) regarding the current assessment of warning systems in Europe, which you can listen to here.

3. Future changes of hazard occurrence

The project partners Finnish Meteorological Institute, Technical University Delft and Freie Universität Berlin jointly with ESSL created projections of the impact of climate change on hydrometeoroloigcal hazards relevant to Critical Infrastructure. The projections used, among other sources, simulations form the EuroCordex experiment, that were kindly provided by modelling groups across Europe.

The full report (subject to review by the European Commission) can be downloaded here:
RAIN report D2.5: Present and future probability of meteorological and hydrological hazards in Europe

The raw data (RAIN D2.4)  can be downloaded from the 4TU repository here:

The RAIN Project website can be found here.

An example is given below for the occurrence of covnective windstorms: